Sharing and Teaching the Joy of Giving

Since 1990, more than 124 million boys and girls in over 150 countries have experienced generosity and love through the power of simple shoebox gifts from Operation Christmas Child worldwide, a Samaritan’s Purse project. We asked Jessica Mills to tell us more and explain how we can get involved.

Luxmama: Can you tell us about this initiative?

Jessica: I have the great pleasure to work with so many generous families and individuals in and around Luxembourg on this project. We pack shoeboxes with new, useful and fun items (and lots of love) for needy children aged 2-14 so we can bring hope and help them feel special at Christmas. There are 15 of us that co-ordinate the project in homes, businesses, churches and collection points in Luxembourg.

Operation Christmas Child is a project of Samaritan’s Purse, an international relief and development organisation working through local churches to proclaim and demonstrate God’s love amongst communities in Africa, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

 

Luxmama: How did you get involved?

Jessica: ‘Christmas in a shoebox’ (‘Weihnachten im Schuhkarton’) has been running in Luxembourg for many years and I became involved about 10 years ago. I was inspired by the idea of the teaching my children the joy of giving in a practical way by packing a box for a child of their age and I even encouraged them to budget pocket money to contribute. Giving and making gifts is a real passion of mine so this project was particularly appealing.

The project in Luxembourg has grown exponentially, largely by word of mouth. Last year, we sent 1488 boxes to the children. For us, it’s about being positive and bringing hope and ultimately changing the world one life at a time.

 

Luxmama: Who receives the boxes?

Jessica: Our boxes go to very needy communities in Romania and Moldova. These children really have very little and are so thrilled to be given a box just for themselves. In many cases, it is the first gift they have ever received. Local churches and social workers with the organisation assess where the need is the greatest and ensure that the boxes reach the children.

We encourage people to include a card/letter and a photo to make the gift more personal and these are often treasured by the children. I have spoken to people who received boxes as children many years ago and they all remember being overwhelmed that someone was out there who had taken the time to pack a box just for them.

 

Luxmama: How can our members help?

Jessica: There are many ways that you can get involved and every little bit helps:

  • Pack a box and encourage others to do so.
  • Donate contents (only new items).
  • Donate wool for the hats we knit or knit hats, socks or scarves for children.
  • Donate new or never-used cuddly toys (15cm or less).
  • Raise money for the transport (€8 a box).
  • Pack a box online at www.shoeboxworld.co.uk
  • Volunteer to help check boxes or help at collection points in October.
  • Co-ordinate a group at school/work/your community to pack boxes.
  • Buy a packed box from us (22 Euros for contents and 8 Euro for transport).

 

Luxmama: What items should we give the children?

Jessica: Remember that these children often have nothing. We want to give them things that help them realise how special and important they are and that’s why everything must be new. Donors decide to give to a boy or girl and then choose an age group: 2-4, 5-9 or 10-14. We always receive fewer boxes for boys aged 2-4 and 10-14 and so it would be great if we can get a few more for these boys this year.

We want the children to receive a full box and so each box must include essential hygiene items, a cuddly toy (these are always precious to all age groups – yes, even the boys), other toys, small items of winter clothing, milk chocolate, school stationery items (for ages 5+) and a card plus €8 for transport. For ages 5+, we also ask for an A5 exercise book in every box with a few other stationery items. Many of the children have to write in pencil so that their work can be erased and the book re-used.

The full list of categories and all the other details, including deadlines and collection points, can be found on our website (address given below). We ask donors to kindly follow the website instructions as it is such a shame when we have to take unsuitable things out of boxes.

 

Luxmama: So, if we would like to make up a gift box, what should we do?

Jessica: The best thing is to get all the information by going to our website or by emailing me. Then you’ll need to find a box – a “normal” sized shoebox – and cover both the box and the lid separately in Christmas paper. You can order a box from us if you don’t have one.

 

Luxmama: And when does all this happen?

Jessica: Very soon! All the boxes and donations need to be handed in at the collection points by 28 October and they are then carefully checked. We have to make sure that every box adheres to customs regulations and that everything is new and age-appropriate. For example, we cannot send any sweets containing gelatine as this is prohibited in Muslim communities. Boxes are given to all children regardless of their religion. Although Samaritan’s Purse has Christian roots, the box is simply a gift with “no strings attached”. The distributions are need-driven and the organisers are sensitive to the beliefs of the local communities.

 

It really is a lovely, personal and direct way for people to make a big difference to a child who has almost nothing.

 


More about the Author

Jessica Mills is originally from South Africa and has been in Luxembourg for 20 years. She is passionate about education and is a qualified high school teacher and is very active in the local and international community in Luxembourg.

She is married to a South African and has three teenage children.

For more information please visit www.lux-shoebox.weebly.com or email Jessica

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Hidden Gems of Luxembourg – Castle Play Park

Gemma, a Luxmama Club member, has visited many great parks in and around Luxembourg. Here, she shares her review on one of the best hidden gems her and her family has discovered.

Read her other review here.


The best hidden gem we have discovered has to be the play parks. They are just so much more than a swing, and a couple of bouncy things and something to climb if you are lucky. We have discovered some amazing parks in Luxembourg, there seems to be a park around every corner. In fact, there are 172 parks within the city some of these are playgrounds within a school that the public can use in the holidays. We have our own little park around the corner from our flat, complete with swings, slides, climbing frame, roundabouts and sand to play with.

In this new Hidden Gems series, I am going to begin by reviewing the parks while the sun is shining and we seem to spend lots of our time in them.

Castle Park (Merl/Belair)

The Castle Park is exactly that, a playground all based around the theme of a castle. The first thing you see as you enter the park is two knights standing guard outside the entrance.

The entrance is an archway which running above are the battlements. As you walk further into the park it there are many bridges and towers for children to climb up and then slide back down, catering for children of many different ages. Pook at almost 5 can happily and easily negotiate the majority of the park, Meemoo is not far behind her practising her climbing skills.

However, it is the sheer attention to detail that still after many visits you find  for the children to incorporate into their play. There is a kitchen area complete with a caged rabbit and chicken already for the pot. Around the other side where the knights are on guard there are a couple of wine bottles resting.

The castle theme has been used to create a hammock style swing between 2 horses and a rocking carriage. The detailing continues in the design with flag and its own fox emblem repeated across the castle. The park also offers a set of baby swings, larger swings, a see – saw. There are small bouncers which are rats, continuing the medieval theme of the park.  The only downside to this park is that is only one pay per use public toilet right on the edge of the park and no café.

Practical Info

  • Park is on Rue de Charlemenge in the Merl/Belair area
  • There is lots of on street paid parking.
  • It is easily reached by the number 5 and 6 bus getting off at the Orval stop and a short walk up Rue d’Orval.
  • It is also called “Spillplaatz Scheiwisschen”

The park is a dream place to have imaginative adventures in play for all, a hidden gem of Luxembourg city.


More about the Author

Hi!, I am Gemma, Mummy to Meemoo, 3, and Pook, 5, and wife to Speedy!

We love nicknames in our house. I am currently looking after my two children at home, finding time to write and create play ideas, play spaces and simple crafts to keep us all entertained! In a previous life I was an Early Years Teacher and I can be found most Tuesday reading stories at Il etait une fois asbl in Gasperich.

Find out more about The Adventures of Meemoo and Pook at www.theadventuresofmeemooandpook.co.uk

A blog with lots of ideas for imaginative adventures in play.

Passport Photos for Babies

A few months after your new baby is born and the initial fog has lifted, you start getting organized. As most of us are expats living in Luxembourg and/or we loooove to travel, we need a passport/ID card for the new little person in our life.

Here are our recommendations to how and where to get the passport PHOTOS done!

The most popular method seems to be taking the picture yourself! Once you have managed to keep the baby still and on a grey or white background (check with your embassy what is allowed as some countries can be pretty strict with their passport pictures), you can either send the photo per email or bring it on a USB key directly to the photo shop and they will print it for you.

It is very important to be clear on the requirements of your photos, for instance it is sometimes required that baby should:

  • not be smiling
  • with open eyes (fair enough but if it’s a newborn that can only stay happily awake for around an hour, impeccable timing is going to be of the essence)
  • with a closed mouth (getting tricky now…)
  • not be sucking on a pacifier or anything else for that matter
  • not be crying. And again here, timing is going to be of the essence. Therefore plan the session so baby is not overtired, or over-hungry and just freshly woken up from a good nap
  • not be wearing any hats, bandanas, glasses or tiaras… Really!

If you do not trust your own photographic skills there are a few places you can go and they will take great care of you and your baby!

Finally, you can also hire a professional photographer to take the photo, perhaps as part of a fabulous family shoot! We really love to work with the following wonderful talents (and regular photography volunteers for Luxmama):
F&G Photography www.photographyfg.com/
Laura Pakasiene Photography: www.facebook.com/LauraPhotography.Luxembourg
Neha Poddar Photography: www.facebook.com/nehapoddarphotography

Our top tip: before going to the Photo shop, check with the authorities to see how they prefer to have them done. The Danish Consulate in Luxembourg suggested we send our photo by email. We therefore didn’t have any cost regarding the printing of the photo. We did have a lot of takes at home as baby would not lie still, but we made it in the end!

What are your experiences? Share in the comments below!


More about the Author

Anne Louise is a mother of two small boys and works as a Holistic Health Coach in Luxembourg. Her passion is helping people, just like you, feel better about themselves through self-care, nutrition and exercise.  

Her dream is that we all start taking better care of ourselves, by eating better, exercising, having healthy relationships, healthy careers and everything else we need, to be at our absolute best. Her dream is that we all Get Real about lives, our health and our well-being.

Why not start Getting Real about your Health and Wellbeing today? You can join her mailing list where you will learn all about her private practice and stay up to date with her events. Sign up here: bit.ly/getrealwithanne

Anne Louise is also a blogger (click here to find her blog) and a volunteer for the Luxmama Club. You can meet her at our monthly Bellies & Booties event.

 

Cécile’s Incredible Birth Story

I had the pleasure of connecting with Cécile Devroye, a new Mom here in Luxembourg, first at our Positive Birth Movement Luxembourg meetup. With her little baby in tow, Cécile shared her incredible birth story with us all.

A huge part of my work as a Birth Doula and Childbirth Educator is informing clients of their options and helping them make decisions they are comfortable with, centred on the best evidenced based information. When I heard Cécile’s story I knew it was an anecdote I would hold on to, I was proud of her. Proud that she knew she had options and trusted her inner voice. We knew we needed to help others hear her story, too.

Here at Luxmama, we are passionate about many things. Our focus and main awareness pillars are Birth Rights (or Human Rights in Childbirth), Green Parenting and Perinatal Mental Health. While we have been focusing on the doula aspect of Birth Rights with our current #choice2haveadoula campaign, this is not exclusive! There are so many different ways we hope to help parents know their rights in childbirth and always encourage respectful communication with medical care providers.

In hearing Cécile’s story, we hope that you too will ask questions and get a second opinion if necessary. Trust your instincts and “be free” to not blindly follow what is expected. Take control of your experience and make it your own, it’s one you will remember for a lifetime.

Read the interview here:

Erin (E), Cecile (C)

E- This morning we will be talking about your birth and the unique experience you had here in Luxembourg and subsequently in Amsterdam where Sara was born. But first, I would love to hear a little about you and your philosophy when it comes to birth.

C- I believe in trusting our bodies and that birth is the most natural human experience. As women, we have a very strong intuition when it comes to being a mother and how we decide to have our babies. Mother instinct. It is important to listen to ourselves and our feelings. My dream was to give birth in water and even in Nature. I would have even considered giving birth with Dolphins in the wild.

I had the chance to read a beautiful book “La Naissance, un voyage” about a woman who traveled around the world and was present in several natural childbirths in Mexico, India, Brazil, Africa. So many inspiring stories. It made me realise that there are many ways in giving birth not only what doctors in a traditional hospital will tell you that this is a normal procedure. There is no such thing. It is all about your own story and your baby’s story too.

E- That’s a great philosophy. Women have been doing this since the beginning of time. In my opinion, birth is natures work at its finest.

C- Exactly!

E- What can you tell us about your pregnancy?

C- Despite my age (I am 46 years old) I knew deep inside that I would become a mother one day. And when you want something really strongly, I believe that all the universe conspires in helping you to achieve it. It doesn’t matter how… it is all about the will and the right timing. I become a mother at the right moment. I was working on my own projects but not as an employee. When I knew I was pregnant I felt honoured to have been chosen as a mother. I did not want to have too many ultrasound tests. I had only 2 at the right beginning, then a 3rd one at my 32 weeks and I found out that it was a “she”. I felt so happy and blessed. My pregnancy went well although I felt some pain in my ribs and I later learned that this was because of her position inside – she was in breech . Because of her position, I had another echo at my 37 weeks when the doctor told me that my baby was “under the growth-curve” and that I had to decide nearly on that same day for a scheduled caesarean. He was quite harsh and frightening. He even told me that my baby could die in my belly… A midwife discouraged me from even thinking about natural birth with a breech baby because “they would have to break my pelvis”, and it put Sara at risk for being disabled.

They even said that if I didn’t follow their advice, I would be putting them in jail – I understood that they were worried about their reputation and that it was their fear not mine. I was a first time Mom, and if I had have been younger I might not have been as confident to stand up to them…

I was shocked but even more outraged by the way they talked to me. It was so threatening but I could in the end come back to my senses and I immediately went to see another doctor for a second opinion who told me that everything was fine and that she was just a smaller baby.

E- It’s great that you trusted your instincts and decided to get a second opinion. That is always an option. So, you mentioned Sara’s position causing you some discomfort during your pregnancy. To explain, this is because she was in a breech position, which means she was resting bottom down instead of head down. What happened from this point?

C- I tried several things to invite Sara to turn down : I went to prenatal yoga classes where I learned some posture to help out. I tried moxabustion [the Chinese Medicine technique of burning moxa (dried mugwort) known to encourage babies to turn] but it didn’t work out. I talked and sang to her. In the end she was happy and comfortable where she was. Someone once told me that the reason she stayed in breech was because she wanted to be close to my heart which is a very sweet sentiment.

I heard that in the whole country there were sadly only two doctors who are known to support a breech position delivery, but one of them was the one I had a bad experience with and who suggested a caesarean birth at 37 weeks and the other one is practicing in the same cabinet and was actually on holiday.

I believe that everything happens for a reason and Sara had certainly her reason to stay in breech – maybe she wanted to be born in Amsterdam.

E- That’s so true; we know babies have their own intuitions already in the womb. Tell us about your choice to give birth in the Netherlands, and the process.

C- There was no way for me to decide for a C-section (which was my only option in Luxembourg). I was still convinced that I could give birth naturally. So, I escaped Luxembourg when I was 41 weeks pregnant (11 days past my estimated due date) and I went to Amsterdam It was a last minute decision and while we were traveling by car, I was looking for a place to stay that I finally managed to find. When we arrived in Amsterdam, we went directly to the birth hotel where I met an amazing lady who directly arranged an appointment with the hospital. I knew I was at the right place as soon as they told me that they were experts in breech delivery. All of the doctors, midwives, obstetricians were women and they were so great and welcoming. As Oprah Winfrey said “life speaks to you every day.” Whatever you decide in life and the choices you make you will get your answers.

E- Wow it’s great that you felt so welcome. What can you share with us about Sara’s birth?

C- I was in good hands and I trusted the doctors right away. I dreamed of giving birth in water and I ended up having quite a medicalized birth, but as soon as you realize that this is the moment for your baby to come, there is no important dream anymore, the most important thing is to see your baby arriving safely. I am happy that I was able to give birth naturally without having to have surgery and I was thankful for the excellent team (doctors and midwifes) in Amsterdam who helped us throughout. We received excellent care. Sara spent one night in the neonatal unit but she was with me the next morning.

E- Is there anything else you would like to share with us?

C- Yes. I deeply encourage every mother-to-be and anyone else to listen to their inner voice, to follow their courage and feel free to take any decision according to who they really are. We have created society and that society has conditioned us. Our minds are strained and heavily conditioned by a morality which is not moral and not normal. We obey to teachers, politicians, doctors, etc but they don’t own the truth. And when it comes to birth and babies, “prenatal programming” definitely exists. The only truth to trust is the one within us and I hope that more and more people will open themselves to that consciousness.

Also, Sara’s birth is not only my story, but it’s also her story. Before they are even born the baby’s journey starts. It’s not about only us as human beings having a spiritual experience, we are spiritual beings having a human experience. We must have faith in something more than what we can see.

Finally I would like to quote a courageous mom whom I was in touched with during my pregnancy and after Sara’s birth, she said something I totally agree with : “Change birth to change humanity”. It is so true.

E- “Heal Birth, heal the earth”

C- That’s exactly it.

Thank you so much Cécile for sharing your story with us. You have demonstrated great courage, and it is so great that you felt empowered and able to take control of your care and in turn this very important life event! This is inspiring and I hope that others in the same, or a similar situation, may also find the courage to trust their instincts as you have.


More about Cécile Devroye

Cécile has worked in the cinema industry for years, occupying various positions in animation companies, production enterprises, film festivals and producer training organisation. She left the film industry in 2011 to start her own business as a Life Coach. Believing that a vibrational attitude of positivity will attract positive results, she launched the “Dare4Change” initiative in 2012, aimed at raising people’s awareness of their true purpose in life. Cécile is passionate about People, Consciousness, Synchronicity, Quantum Physics and Universe. She believes that we have entered a new Era of Consciousness: people are waking up, they understand that their lives have a greater purpose. She says that we have everything within us and it is about time to have the courage to follow our heart and intuition. So, what if everybody did exactly what they love to do?


Would you like to tell us your birth story?  Click here!


More about Erin Botrie

Erin is a Certified Birth Doula and Child Birth Educator (DTC) from Ontario, Canada. She joins the Luxmama Club & ParentPrep asbl Team, bringing first-hand experience supporting families through this important time and is passionate about birth rights.

Erin enjoys working with expecting and new families to empower their decisions during pregnancy, labour and parenting. A passion for birth and supporting women through this time is what brought her to where she is now.

Erin believes in the importance of families acquiring the knowledge they need to make informed decisions that make sense for them on this journey. Erin advocates for labouring and parenting “your way.” With years of training and first-hand experience she has learned a wide range of tips & techniques that can help expecting parents on the path towards their best birth and parenting experience.

Break the Taboo

Break the Taboo

Urinary Incontinence

Is this subject too taboo?

When I started my studies for physiotherapy I never thought that I was going to be where I am today. I used to think this job was meant to help people with back pain, broken bones and sport injuries. Isn’t that what physiotherapists spend their precious time on?

I have been following the Luxmama activities for some time now and have also been reading all your comments, and I realised that you as parents now know that your beloved kids also sometimes need physiotherapy, especially around that dark, dreary winter time marked by the dreaded bacterial outbreaks in day-care centers. I wish I knew that during the first year of my university studies.

Fortunately, I discovered pediatric physiotherapy in my second year of university. I enjoyed working with and around children and decided to have a trainee-ship in a maternity hospital to learn more about handling new-born children. That was the time when I was thrown in at the deep end. Not only was I surrounded by crying babies but also and in particular by pregnant women, sexual pain, perineal tearing, incontinence, aching breasts and so much more. I was literally shocked!

Young and ignorant as I was, I had no idea of what happens after the first rush of happy hormones wear off after giving birth. From the movies we learn that giving birth is painful, exhausting and is really really hard, but nobody speaks about why it is so painful. Why is nobody talking about what happens to the pelvic floor during the pregnancy, childbirth and following weeks and months?

In the era of Shades of Grey, when nothing seems unspeakable, unfortunately, the pelvic floor and its injuries like perineal tearing is still a taboo topic. A study (1) says that 93.5% of primiparae (women giving birth for the first time) suffer a perineal tear at delivery. Moreover, 32% to 64% of women world-wide are affected by urinary incontinence (2). Women who experience damage of the perineal structures have pain, social and psychological problems in addition to problems with their pelvic floor (incontinence or organ prolapse) (3).

Women of all ages need to be enlightened. The sooner the better. That is the reason why it is so important to talk about these potential challenges and to prevent them. 

Today, I am a physiotherapist specialized in gynaecology, urology and… whoop!… paediatrics.

I want to give you more information about topics like the pelvic floor, doing sports during pregnancy and perineal tears, so that the unpleasant side of delivery is no longer a taboo subject. Women, and men, need to know that there is a way to resolve urinary incontinence, so you can focus more on other more positive sides of being a mum.

 

The Pelvic Floor

The pelvic floor is the area between the pelvic bones at the very end of our trunk. Roughly speaking you can imagine a bowl of muscles resting between your pubis (the bone close to the bladder), your coccyx (the bone which hurts a lot if you fall on your bum) and your ischial tuberosity (the bones which you sit on).

On the one hand the function of the pelvic floor is it to guarantee continence and to avoid organ prolapse. This security must be given at any moment, also in pregnancy. On the other hand, the muscles must be able to relax when we go to the toilet to voluntarily empty the bladder or the rectum (4). The pelvic floor must hold against the pressure which can result from sneezing or coughing or carrying the baby in the uterus. So, the muscles contract and they lift the vagina and the anus to regulate the push. To sum up, strong pelvic floor muscles are needed (5).

The pelvic floor undergoes changes due to the hormonal and mechanical changes during pregnancy (6). In this context we speak about the weight of the uterus pushing on the pelvic floor (7), the Body Mass Index of the mother before the pregnancy and at the moment of the delivery, but also the weight of the fœtus. The heavier the baby is, the more weight is pushing on the structures of the pelvic floor (8).

The production of the hormones Oestrogen, Relaxin and Progesteron is higher during pregnancy, which influences the pelvic floor and the urogenital organs (9). The effect of those hormones is a loss of stability of the ligaments and muscles, particularly the muscles of the uterus, the bladder and the urinary tract. This results in an inefficient closing mechanism and therefore in urinary incontinence (7). Incontinence is described as an involuntary loss of urine or faecal matter (13). This can be felt during physical activities such as sneezing, coughing or lifting the baby (10).

Physical activity and sports contribute to the production of catecholamine, which helps to guarantee the functionality of the closing mechanism of the urinary tract and safeguards urinary continence (11).

Several other risk factors during pregnancy and delivery can impact the pelvic floor negatively. These include as for example the second stage of birth, smoking habits and epidural anaesthesia (6).

In addition to the slacking of pelvic floor tissue during pregnancy, strains and tears of the perineal structures (vessels, muscles, connective tissue) cannot be ruled out (12).

There are already studies which can prove the positive effect of pelvic floor exercises to prevent incontinence while researchers continue trying to find even more solutions against perineal tear, too.

I would love to accompany you and your friends in your re-education of the pelvic floor. There is no reason why we should live with incontinence after an experience as wonderful as becoming a mum.


About the Author

Carmen Glod is a physiotherapist specialized in urogynecology and paediatrics. She is luxemburgish and studied in Germany. Talking about the pelvic floor is her passion. Her aim is to break the taboo around pelvic floor injuries and incontinence.

She is working in the Cabinet de Kinésithérapie Mélodie Hermant. 121C route d’Arlon 1150 Luxembourg. Tél.: +352 263899

Don’t hesitate to get in touch!


References

(1) Samuelsson, E., Ladfords, L., Lindblom, BG., Hagberg, H. (2002). A prospective observational study on tears during vaginal delivery: occurrences and risk factors. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica, 81(1), 44-9.

(2) Milsom, I., Altman, D., Lapitan, MC., Nelson, R., Sillen, U., Thom, D. (2009). Epidemiology of urinary (UI) and faecal (FI) incontinence and pelvic organ Prolapse (POP). Committee 1.

(3) Handa, VL., Blomquist, JL., McDermott, KC., Friedman, S., Munos, A. (2012). Pelvic floor disorders after vaginal birth: effect of episiotomy, perineal laceration, and operative birth.  Obstetrics & Gynecology, 119(2 PT 1), 233-9.

(4) Ashton-Miller, JA., DeLancey, JO. (2007). Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1101, 266-296.

(5) Nyangoh, TK., Bessede, T., Zaitouna, M., Peschaud, F., Chevallier, JM., Fauconnier, A., Benoit, G., Moszkowicz, D. (2015). Anatomy of the levator ani muscle.

(6) Bozkurt, M., Yumru, A. E., Sahin, L. (2014). Pelvic floor dysfunction, and effects of pregnancy and mode of delivery on pelvic floor. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 53(4), 452-458.

(7) Chan, S. S., Cheung, R. Y., Yiu, K. W., Lee, L. L., Leung, T. Y., Chung, T. K. (2014). Pelvic floor biometry during a first singleton pregnancy and the relationship with symptoms of pelvic floor disorders: a prospective observational study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 121(1), 121-129.

(8) Bozkurt, M., Yumru, A. E., Sahin, L. (2014). Pelvic floor dysfunction, and effects of pregnancy and mode of delivery on pelvic floor. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 53(4), 452-458.

(9) Chen, B., Wen, Y., Yu, X., Polan, ML: (2005). Elastin metabolism in pelvic tissues: is it modulated by reproductive hormones?. American journal of obstetrics & gynecology, 192(5), 1605-13.

(10) Schumacher, S., Müller, SC. (2004). Belastungsinkontinenz und Mischinkontinenz. (electronic version). Der Urologe. 43, 10, 1289- 1300.

(11) Thyssen, HH.,  Clevin, L., Olesen, S., Lose, G. (2002). Urinary incontinence in elite female athletes and dancers. International urogynecology journal and pelvic floor dysfunction, 13(1), 15-7

(12) Memon, HU., Handa, VL. (2013). Vaginal Childbirth and pelvic floor disorders. Women’s Health, 9(3), 265-77.

(13) Haylen, B. T., Ridder, D., Freeman, R.M., Swift, S. E., Berghamans, B., Lee, J., Monga, A., Patri, E., Rizk, D. E., Sand, P. K., Schaer, G. N. (2009). An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) / International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the Terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. Neurology and Urodynamics, Version 17, 10-17.